TOP1: Releases the supercoiling and torsional tension of DNA introduced during the DNA replication and transcription by transiently cleaving and rejoining one strand of the DNA duplex. Introduces a single-strand break via transesterification at a target site in duplex DNA. The scissile phosphodiester is attacked by the catalytic tyrosine of the enzyme, resulting in the formation of a DNA-(3'-phosphotyrosyl)-enzyme intermediate and the expulsion of a 5'-OH DNA strand. The free DNA strand then undergoes passage around the unbroken strand thus removing DNA supercoils. Finally, in the religation step, the DNA 5'-OH attacks the covalent intermediate to expel the active-site tyrosine and restore the DNA phosphodiester backbone (By similarity). Regulates the alternative splicing of tissue factor (F3) pre-mRNA in endothelial cells. Involved in the circadian transcription of the core circadian clock component ARNTL/BMAL1 by altering the chromatin structure around the ROR response elements (ROREs) on the ARNTL/BMAL1 promoter.
HIF1A: Functions as a master transcriptional regulator of the adaptive response to hypoxia. Under hypoxic conditions, activates the transcription of over 40 genes, including erythropoietin, glucose transporters, glycolytic enzymes, vascular endothelial growth factor, HILPDA, and other genes whose protein products increase oxygen delivery or facilitate metabolic adaptation to hypoxia. Plays an essential role in embryonic vascularization, tumor angiogenesis and pathophysiology of ischemic disease. Binds to core DNA sequence 5'-[AG]CGTG-3' within the hypoxia response element (HRE) of target gene promoters. Activation requires recruitment of transcriptional coactivators such as CREBPB and EP300. Activity is enhanced by interaction with both, NCOA1 or NCOA2. Interaction with redox regulatory protein APEX seems to activate CTAD and potentiates activation by NCOA1 and CREBBP. Involved in the axonal distribution and transport of mitochondria in neurons during hypoxia.
 CRLX101, an investigational camptothecin-containing nanoparticle-drug conjugate, targets cancer stem cells and impedes resistance to antiangiogenic therapy in mouse models of breast cancer.
Conley, S. J., et al. (2015). Breast Cancer Res Treat 150(3): 559-567. [ 25833208 ]